Protein synthesis involving transcription and translation occurs in the ribosome, which are the extra nuclear cellular structures by DNA that directs the synthesis of proteins. Synthesis of proteins is very often referred to as a multi-step process where the synthesis begins with the amino acid synthesis, nuclear DNA transcription to form mRNA that is required for the translation.
Image of Basic protein synthesis steps within a cell
Ribosomes are huge assemblies of macromolecules that consist of several ribosomal RNAs and various other proteins. Protein synthesis occurs on these ribosomes. The mRNA is made available by the ribosomes in the manner that the aminoacylated tRNAs are able to bind to its respective codon and these mRNAs involve in the peptide bond formation, which are ribosome catalyzed. A large number of accessory enzymes such as the translation factors help the ribosomes in the protein synthesis steps.
Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
In prokaryotes, translation on mRNA is initiated as and when the mRNA is being synthesized with the processes, the transcription and the translation having been coupled functionally and spatially. In contrast to this, in eukaryotes spatial separation of both the processes is seen. In eukaryotes, the transcription process and the primary transcript processing takes place in the nucleus and the mRNAs are transported to the cytosol where the process of translation begins.
Initially ribosomes where thought to be the sites for the incorporation of amino acids into the protein, a process that occurs in the cells’ cytosol. Enzymatic studies reveal that ribosomes are ribozymes containing active sites with RNA and the ribosomal proteins are help in the assembly and its functions. Aminoacylated tRNAs carrying energy rich ester bond amino acid that are specific are the basic substrates for the synthesis of proteins.
Conclusion for protein synthesis occurrence
To conclude, the process of protein synthesis, a vital process involved in the growth of the cells. Certain drugs that used for killing of the cells, aim at protein synthesis process in the cells. With both the processes of transcription and translation, a huge number of proteins are synthesized. The decades of vital protein synthesis research has proven that protein synthesis occurs in ribosomes with mRNA as the template molecule.Having problem with chemistry projects for class 11 cbse keep reading my upcoming posts, i will try to help you.